This blog is based on Guide to app architecture, which doesn’t advocate to use any particular architecture but mostly focuses on how to structure an app using Architecture Components.App Architecture

Isn’t this MVVM?

Architecture Components have been developed in such a way that when we integrate it into our project, they eventually end up organizing our project in MVVM like architecture. Most important components to look out are –

If we use ViewModel and Data Binding, then we can call our architecture as MVVM and if we use ViewModel and LiveData, then it is just MVVM without Data Binding.

Data Binding library was announced back in Google I/O 2015. Using it or not can be developer’s choice to bind ViewModel with the View.

Get Started

We have developed the UpcomingMovies-Android project, which demonstrates the use of ViewModel and LiveData and many other Android Jetpack components in Kotlin language. We referred following projects from github.com/googlesamples

How is ViewModel different than Presenter?

Many developers do not preserve Presenter on configuration changes like screen rotation. So long-running network calls had to be called again, which shouldn’t be the case. Android does not have anything to preserve the Presenter out of the box. So they made ViewModel as a component. This ViewModel component not necessarily means ViewModel of the MVVM but can be very closely related with.

ViewModel attaches to the lifecycle of your Activity/Fragment. This means it is not destroyed on Activity‘s/Fragment‘s onDestroy() method but gets cleared only when Activity/Fragment is finishing. So you can say ViewModel as a Presenter with lifecycle aware feature.

In MVP, it gets difficult to access application context. Here in ViewModel library, AndroidViewModel is a class which extends from ViewModel and is nothing but Application aware ViewModel.

What is LiveData? 

LiveData is a lifecycle aware observable pattern, which emits value only when Activity/Fragment is in STARTED or RESUMED state. Have a look at LiveDataUnitTest.kt. LiveData does also have observeForever() method, which is not lifecycle aware and is always in an active state.

We can add multiple Observer to LiveData and whenever a value in it changes, all the added Observer will get notified. LiveData are generally stored in ViewModel so that we can expose data to Activity/Fragment through ViewModel and add necessary Observer.

Expose data through Repository

Data can be fetched from a remote data source or can be stored locally for caching. A Repository isn’t an architecture component but just the way of organizing data communication, same as the way in MVP. A Repository might have only a remote data source or only a local data source or a combination of both. This would vary depending upon the use case. Organizing data communication through the Repository makes it extendable and easy to test.

Local Data Source using Room 

Room is a persistence library which provides an abstraction layer over SQLite to allow for more robust database access while harnessing the full power of SQLite. We can communicate to local db by DAOs made using Room. DAO makes it easy for developers to write a SQLite query in a functional way. Room also has in memory db approach which saves the db until an Activity/Fragment is not finished. See UpcomingMovieDaoTest.kt in the attached project. 

Other Architecture Components to look at

We have also used the Paging library which makes it easy to load data from a source which supports pagination. It has three abstract classes PageKeyedDataSource, ItemKeyedDataSource and PositionalDataSource, which we can extend and use it according to our need. See UpcomingMoviesDataSource.kt which extends from PageKeyedDataSource to fetch remote data depending on the page key and if network call fails then it checks for the cached copy in local db using Room.

Conclusion

We have made our first attempt towards MVVM, let’s see how well it is adopted by developers.

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